Final Report

Professor Ross Garnaut was commissioned by all of the governments of Australia’s federation to examine the impacts of climate change on Australia and to recommend policy frameworks to improve the prospects of sustainable prosperity.

The Garnaut Climate Change Review examines the impacts of climate change on the Australian economy and the costs of adaptation and mitigation. It analyses the elements of an appropriate international policy response, and the challenges that face Australia in playing its proportionate part in that response.

The Garnaut Climate Change Review is highly relevant to the global problem that is climate change. It considers what policies the international community should adopt in responding to climate change, and urges humanity to act now, and in concert, to develop the required policy response in time.

Corrigenda to print version

Note: The following changes are specific to the print version of the final report, published in October 2008 by Cambridge University Press.
The web versions (PDF and HTML) have been amended.

Chapter Page Location Correction or addition

Synopsis of key points


Paragraph 1,
last sentence

Replace existing sentence with the following:

‘For 2050, reductions would be 80 per cent from 2000 levels or 90 per cent per capita.’



Reference number 10
(Garnaut et al. 2008)

Replace existing journal title with ‘Oxford Review of Economic Policy’.



Note under Figure 4.5, last sentence

Replace existing sentence with the following:

The IPCC considers that climate sensitivities under 1.5oC are considered very unlikely (less than 10 per cent probability), and that 4.5oC is at the upper end of the range considered likely (greater than 66 per cent probability) (HTML version updated only)



Paragraph 2,
last sentence

Replace existing sentence with the following:

‘Taken together, Type 1 and Type 2 costs amount to approximately 8 per cent of GDP, about 10 per cent of GNP and consumption, and a higher percentage of real wages.’



Figure 11.4

See web versions (PDF and HTML) of Chapter 11 for correct figure.



Paragraph 3,
last sentence

Replace existing sentence with the following:

‘For 2050, reductions would be 80 per cent from 2000 levels or 90 per cent per capita.’



Paragraph 2,
first sentence

Replace ‘two-thirds’ with ‘two-tenths’.



Figure 20.1

Replace ‘MW’ on the y axis with ‘GW’.

Download PDF

The Garnaut Climate Change Review final report is now available for viewing in Portable Document Format (PDF). To read PDF files, use Adobe Reader. Please see 'Accessibility' for more information.

Preliminary pages PDF

Title pages, Table of Contents, Preface and Acknowledgements

(PDF, 160kb)

Terms of reference

(PDF, 32kb)

Introduction and Synopsis of key points

(PDF, 119kb)

Chapters PDF

Chapter 1: A decision-making framework

(PDF, 483kb)

Chapter 2: Understanding climate science

(PDF, 1.28MB)

Chapter 3: Emissions in the Platinum Age

(PDF, 1.79MB)

Chapter 4: Projecting global climate change

(PDF, 3.67MB)

Chapter 5: Projecting Australian climate change

(PDF, 302kb)

Chapter 6: Climate change impacts on Australia

(PDF, 294kb)

Chapter 7: Australia's emissions in a global context

(PDF, 1.18)

Chapter 8: Assessing the international response

(PDF, 228kb)

Chapter 9: Towards global agreement

(PDF, 498kb)

Chapter 10: Deepening global collaboration

(PDF, 210kb)

Chapter 11: Costing climate change and its avoidance

(PDF, 531kb)

Chapter 12: Targets and trajectories

(PDF, 246kb)

Chapter 13: An Australian policy framework

(PDF, 114kb)

Chapter 14: Australia's emissions trading scheme

(PDF, 415kb)

Chapter 15: Adaptation and mitigation measures for Australia

(PDF, 193kb)

Chapter 16: Sharing the burden in Australia

(PDF, 260kb)

Chapter 17: Information barriers to known technologies

(PDF, 185kb)

Chapter 18: The innovation challenge

(PDF, 243kb)

Chapter 19: Network infrastructure

(PDF, 590kb)

Chapter 20: Transforming energy

(PDF, 1.31MB)

Chapter 21: Transforming transport

(PDF, 719kb)

Chapter 22: Transforming rural land use

(PDF, 639kb)

Chapter 23: Towards a low-emissions economy

(PDF, 656kb)

Chapter 24: Fateful decisions

(PDF, 5kb)

End matter PDF

List of figures and tables, List of shortened forms,
Glossary, Index

(PDF, 115kb)

Full Final Report PDF

Final Report

(PDF, 15.5MB)

Corrigenda PDF

Corrigenda to print version

(PDF, 344kb)

Please note, hard copies of the Final Report can be obtained through Cambridge University Press. For more information, please visit